Nine scientific concepts:

  1. Organization. Arranging and classifying data in hierarchies
  2. Cause and effect. Searching for explanations is the major activity of science; effects cannot occur without causes.
  3. Systems. Compartmentalizing and understand the different parts of the whole according to some scheme or plan.
  4. Scale. Refers to quantity, both relative and absolute.
  5. Models. The creation or design of objects that represent other things or concepts.
  6. Change. Observation of changes in positions, rate, and shapes.
  7. Structure and function. A relationship exists between the way organisms and objects look (feel, smell, sound, and taste) and the things they do.
  8. Variation. To understand the concept of organic evolution and the statistical nature of the world, students first need to understand that all organisms and objects have distinctive properties. Some of these properties are so distinctive that no continuum connects them--for example, living and nonliving things, or sugar and salt. In most of the natural world, however, the properties of organisms and objects vary continuously.
  9. Diversity. There are many types of objects and organisms.